The study included data from 52 countries and matched 5,761 cases of AMI with 10,646 control subjects. Diet was classified simply using three dietary patterns:
- Oriental (high intake of tofu and soy and other sauces)
- Western (high in fried foods, salty snacks, eggs, and meat)
- Prudent (high in fruit and vegetables)
An analysis of overall dietary scores found that higher scores, indicating a poorer diet, were associated with an increased risk of AMI. This association was statistically significant (P for trend <0.001).
- First Quartile, Odds ratio 1.0 (reference)
- Second quartile, 1.29 (95% CI 1.17 to 1.42)
- Third quartile, 1.67 (95% CI 1.51 to 1.83)
- Fourth quartile, 1.92 (95% CI 1.74 to 2.11)
The authors conclude that, "An unhealthy dietary intake increases the risk of AMI globally and accounts for approximately 30% of the population-attributable risk".
Action: Clinicians should already be advising patients to consume a healthy diet. This data can be used to illustrate the impact a poor diet has on the risk of having a myocardial infarction.